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Table 1 Phonemes of Persian language

From: A large vocabulary continuous speech recognition system for Persian language

IPA Char Code Farsi Letter Phonetic Description
i i 105 high front unrounded
e e 101 mid front unrounded
a a 97 low front unrounded
u u 117 high back unrounded
o o 111 mid back unrounded
/ 47 low back rounded
\ 92 unvoiced bilabial plosive closure
p p 112 unvoiced bilabial plosive
' 96 voiced bilabial plosive closure
b b 98 voiced bilabial plosive
- 45 unvoiced alveolar plosive closure
t t 116 unvoiced dental plosive
= 61 voiced dental plosive closure
d d 100 voiced dental plosive
@ 64 unvoiced palatal plosive closure
c c 99 unvoiced bilabial plosive
* 42 unvoiced velar plosive closure
k k 107 unvoiced bilabial plosive
! 33 voiced palatal plosive closure
; 59 voiced palatal plosive
& 38 voiced velar plosive closure
g g 103 voiced velar plosive
^ 94 voiced uvular plosive closure
G q 113 voiced uvular plosive
( 40 glottal stop closure
] 93 glottal stop
$ 36 unvoiced alveopalatal affricate closure
' 39 unvoiced alveopalatal affricate
# 35 voiced alveopalatal affricate closure
' 44 voiced alveopalatal affricate
f f 102 unvoiced labiodental fricative
v v 118 voiced labiodental fricative
s s 115 unvoiced alveolar fricative
Z z 122 voiced alveolar fricative
ยท 46 unvoiced alveopalatal fricative
[ 91 voiced alveopalatal fricative
x 120 unvoiced uvular fricative
h h 104 unvoiced glottal fricative
l l 108 lateral alveolar
r r 114 trill alveolar
m m 109 nasal bilabial
n n 110 nasal alveolar
j y 121 approximant palatal