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Table 4 General recapitulation

From: Comparative study of digital audio steganography techniques

Hiding domain Methods Embedding techniques Advantages Drawbacks Hiding rate
Temporal domain Low bit encoding LSB of each sample in the audio is replaced by one bit of hidden information Simple and easy way of hiding Information with high bit rate Easy to extract and to destroy 16kbps
  Echo hiding Embeds data by introducing echo in the cover signal Resilient to lossy data compression algorithms Low security and capacity 50bps
  Silence intervals Uses the number of samples in silence interval to represent hidden data Resilient to lossy data compression algorithms Low capacity 64bps
Transform Domain Magnitude spectrum Use frequency bands to hide data Longer message to hide and less likely to be affected by errors during transmission Low robustness to simple audio manipulations 20Kbps
  Tone insertion insertion of inaudible tones at selected frequencies Imperceptibility and concealment of embedded data Lack of transparency and security 250bps
  Phase spectrum Modulate the phase of the cover signal Robust against signal processing manipulation and data retrieval needs the original signal Low capacity 333bps
  Spread spectrum Spread the data over all signal frequencies Provide better robustness Vulnerable to time scale modification 20 bps
  Cepstral domain Altering the cepstral coefficients for embedding data Robust against signal processing operations Perceptible signal distortions and low robustness 54bps
  Wavelet Altering wavelet coefficients for embedding data Provide high embedding capacity lossy data retrieval 70kbps
Codecs domain Codebook modification Altering codebook parameters Robust Low embedding rate 2kbps
  Bitstream hiding LSB is applied on the bitstream resulting from the encoder process Robust Low embedding rate 1.6kps