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Table 1 DESIRE parameters and associated emotional features for modalities of voice, gesture and music

From: Towards expressive musical robots: a cross-modal framework for emotional gesture, voice and music

   Modality mappings to relevant emotional features
Parameter Description Voice Gesture Music
Speed slow vs. fast speech rate [20], pauses [18] velocity [35], animation [36], quantity of motion [28] tempo[24, 26]
Intensity gradual vs. abrupt voice onset rapidity [18], articulation [20] acceleration [35], power [37] note attack [24], articulation [26]
Regularity smooth vs. rough jitter [18], voice quality [18, 20] directness [35], phase shift [38, 39], fluidity [27] microstructural irregularity [26], timbral roughness [24]
Extent small vs. large pitch range [20], loudness [18] spatial expansiveness [36, 37], contraction index [35] volume[24, 26]
  1. Features in italics are used in our experiments.