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Table 2 Average authentication results under acceptable audio manipulations

From: Music content authentication based on beat segmentation and fuzzy classification

Manipulation authRatio Result Manipulation (kbps) authRatio Result
LP (8 kHz) 1.4584 MP3 (128) 1.4563
LP (4 kHz) 1.4496 MP3 (96) 1.4550
RS (22,050) 1.4023 MP3 (64) 1.4506
RS (16,000) 1.3876 MP3 (48) 1.4450
- - - MP3 (32) 1.4396
  1. LP means low-pass filtering; RS means resampling.