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Table 3 Confusion matrix for HMM-based system using formant parameter contours (S-I), ν i = s F 1 i , b F 1 i , s F 2 i , b F 2 i , s F 3 i , b F 3 i , s A 1 i , b A 1 i , s A 2 i , b A 2 i , s A 3 i , b A 3 i (overall accuracy 41.6%)

From: On the use of speech parameter contours for emotion recognition

  Neutral (%) Anger (%) Sad (%) Happy (%) Bored (%)
Neutral 55.3 2.1 14.9 17.0 10.6
Anger 4.2 46.5 0 26.8 9.9
Sad 6.6 8.2 32.8 24.6 27.9
Happy 1.4 21.9 15.1 37.0 24.7
Bored 2.6 9.1 20.8 27.3 40.3