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Table 9 Comparison of overall accuracies obtained on LDC corpus

From: On the use of speech parameter contours for emotion recognition

Classification test Accuracy (%)
Human listeners (using 11 listeners) [21] 63.6
Automatic - using pitch contours (slope-bias) 57.1
Automatic - using glottal parameter contours (midpoint) 55.0
Automatic - using vocal tract parameter contours (midpoint) 45.0
Automatic - HMM (three-state)-based system using all model parameters 62.6
Automatic - HMM (one-state)-based system using all model parameters 59.3
Automatic - GMM-based system using all parameters (frame-based) 59.0
Automatic - GMM-based system using MFCC + ∆MFCC (frame-based) 51.1