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Table 2 Two hundred five acoustic features in the proposed feature set (EmoFt): low-level descriptors (LLD) and functionals (brute-force combination) as well as features derived from the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) and three other features(see text)

From: Emotion in the singing voice—a deeperlook at acoustic features in the light ofautomatic classification

19 LLD
Loudness, spectral flux and entropy
Energy in bands 0–0.5 and 0–1 kHz
Slope of log. power spectrum 0–1, 0–5, and 1–5 kHz
Alpha ratio (in dB), Hammarberg index (in dB)
MFCC 1–4, harmonics-to-noise ratio
F 0, prob. of voicing, jitter, and shimmer (local)
Five functionals
Arithmetic mean, standard deviation
Fifth and 95th percentile and range 5–95 %
Long-term average spectrum (LTAS), 27 bands
MFCC 1–4, spectral entropy
Energy in bands 0–0.5 and 0–1 kHz
Slope of log. band spectrum 0–1, 0–5, and 1–5 kHz
Alpha ratio (in dB), Hammarberg index (in dB)
Others
Equivalent sound level (in dB)
Frequency with maximum amplitude in modulation spectrum of
F 0 and loudness