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Table 12 Frequency of Polish phoneme occurrence—comparison to the results published in the literature [40, 42, 44, 45]

From: Statistical analysis of orthographic and phonemic language corpus for word-based and phoneme-based Polish language modelling

No. Obtained results Phoneme [SAMPA] Results in [44] Results in [45] Results in [42] Results in [40]
i f(q i ) [%] [q i ] f(q i ) [%] f(q i ) [%] f(q i ) [%] f(q i ) [%]
1 9.59478 [e] 7.882 9.108 10.6 10.2
2 9.55135 [a] 8.141 9.584 9.7 9.3
3 9.20001 [o] 7.646 8.994 8.0 9.1
4 4.65630 [t] 3.708 4.489 4.8 4.4
5 4.34100 [n] 3.665 4.443 4.0 4.0
6 4.13142 [I] 3.174 3.648 3.8 4.1
7 4.09810 [j] 3.299 3.796 4.4 4.5
8 4.00623 [i] 3.620 4.359 3.4 3.9
9 3.75265 [r] 3.705 4.674 3.2 3.6
10 3.73464 [s] 2.927 3.638 2.8 3.0
11 3.49063 [v] 3.137 3.782 2.9 3.5
12 3.41265 [p] 2.759 3.263 3.0 3.1
13 3.32576 [u] 2.774 3.345 2.8 3.4
14 3.16465 [m] 2.626 2.988 3.2 3.5
15 2.96802 [k] 2.418 2.976 2.5 2.7
16 2.55419 [n’] 1.840 2.088 2.4 2.6
17 2.29278 [d] 2.391 2.888 2.1 2.2
18 2.22555 [l] 2.164 2.642 1.9 2.1
19 1.93507 [w] 1.626 1.636 1.8 2.2
20 1.70517 [S] 1.118 1.215 1.9 2.0
21 1.69430 [f] 1.363 1.683 1.3 1.5
22 1.60077 [z] 1.665 1.947 1.5 1.8
23 1.46934 [ts] 1.335 1.692 1.2 1.5
24 1.46097 [b] 1.304 1.497 1.5 1.5
25 1.33050 [g] 1.341 1.547 1.3 1.5
26 1.31409 [s’] 0.927 0.965 1.6 1.5
27 1.16326 [ts’] 0.643 0.662 1.2 1.3
28 1.12532 [x] 1.153 1.427 1.0 1.1
29 1.11761 [tS] 0.831 0.955 1.2 1.2
30 1.10377 [Z] 0.884 0.944 1.3 1.2
31 0.79984 [e ] 0.582 0.673 0.6 0.7
32 0.65927 [k’] 0.570 0.698 0.7 n.a.
33 0.53682 [dz’] 0.538 0.554 0.7 0.8
34 0.20125 [dz] 0.227 0.261 0.2 0.2
35 0.14815 [z’] 0.183 0.195 0.2 0.2
36 0.10971 [g’] 0.198 0.260 0.1 n.a.
37 0.02412 [dZ] 0.037 0.040 0.1 0.0