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Table 1 The five types of understanding evidence (UE) [30, 34]

From: Miscommunication handling in spoken dialog systems based on error-aware dialog state detection

Type Description
Continued attention The hearer shows continued attention and remains satisfied with speaker’s presentation.
Initiation of the relevant next contribution The hearer starts in on the next contribution that would be relevant at a level as high as the current one.
Acknowledgement The hearer says “uh huh,” “I see,” or nods.
Demonstration The hearer demonstrates all or part of what he has understood.
Display The hearer displays verbatim all or part of speaker’s presentation.