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Table 5 Confusion matrix for categorical emotion recognition on the USC EMA database

From: Articulation constrained learning with application to speech emotion recognition

  Neu Ang Sad Hap
(a) ACO
Neu 79.9 1.9 14.4 3.8
Ang 6.2 74.2 4.1 15.5
Sad 14.4 0.5 81.8 3.3
Hap 8.1 20.4 8.2 63.3
(b) ACL
Neu 80.8 2.7 11.7 4.8
Ang 6.1 73.5 4.0 16.4
Sad 13.0 1.3 81.3 4.4
Hap 6.0 16.1 7.3 70.6*
  1. Rows represent the ground truth, and columns indicate the recognized emotion. Results are averaged across all speakers and vowels and are expressed in percentage. * Statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) over compared methods