Skip to main content

Table 3 Haversine distance error performance comparison (task 1—hovering UAV)

From: Noise power spectral density scaled SNR response estimation with restricted range search for sound source localisation using unmanned aerial vehicles

  Haversine distance errorD (rad) p value: paired samplet test (ref. best case)
  Mean Median Min Max 0.25 quartile 0.75 quartile RMSE  
Baseline    
GCC-PHAT (max) 0.1541 0.04908 0 2.674 0.01745 0.0849 0.4384 6.86 ×10−4
GCC-PHAT (sum) 0.4637 0.07804 0 2.347 0.03491 0.7808 0.8073 3.42 ×10−21
GCC-NONLIN (max) 0.1305 0.03903 0 2.736 0.01745 0.0752 0.3887 n.s.
GCC-NONLIN (sum) 0.4528 0.07376 0 2.347 0.02468 0.7160 0.8010 2.08 ×10−20
MVDR (max) 0.1774 0.03903 0 2.947 0.02369 0.1047 0.4471 1.18 ×10−5
MVDR (sum) 0.3738 0.05794 0 2.222 0.02314 0.2934 0.7081 3.91 ×10−17
DS (max) 0.1976 0.03801 0 2.793 0.01745 0.1196 0.5143 4.81 ×10−6
DS (sum) 0.2935 0.04637 0 2.722 0.01745 0.1795 0.6218 4.71 ×10−12
DNM (max) 0.2535 0.03491 0 3.018 0.01745 0.0837 0.6435 3.14 ×10−7
DNM (sum) 0.3811 0.05456 0 2.806 0.01745 0.1988 0.8074 1.87 ×10−13
w/ [28] T-F mask    
GCC-PHAT (max) 0.1356 0.03903 0 2.818 0.01745 0.0837 0.4064 n.s.
GCC-PHAT (sum) 0.5164 0.08382 0 2.742 0.03654 1.0378 0.8776 1.48 ×10−23
w/ [30] T-F mask    
GCC-PHAT (max) 0.2155 0.05236 0 2.605 0.01745 0.1018 0.4933 1.10 ×10−7
GCC-PHAT (sum) 0.4162 0.08372 0 2.347 0.02468 0.7080 0.7424 1.16 ×10−19
GCC-NONLIN (max) 0.2411 0.05236 0 2.605 0.01745 0.1162 0.5308 3.13 ×10−9
GCC-NONLIN (sum) 0.3837 0.06981 0 2.347 0.02429 0.5923 0.7012 3.90 ×10−18
MVDR (max) 0.1806 0.05504 0 1.941 0.03491 0.1101 0.4154 1.39 ×10−7
MVDR (sum) 0.2702 0.05058 0 2.065 0.02427 0.1711 0.5633 4.44 ×10−12
DS (max) 0.1897 0.06292 0 2.403 0.02030 0.1589 0.4344 2.11 ×10−7
DS (sum) 0.1792 0.03796 0 2.110 0.01745 0.1180 0.4095 1.64 ×10−7
DNM (max) 0.2586 0.03504 0 2.986 0.01745 0.1064 0.6273 2.35 ×10−8
DNM (sum) 0.2113 0.03810 0 2.657 0.01745 0.1144 0.4941 4.24 ×10−9
w/ SNR response scaling    
GCC-PHAT (max) 0.1278 0.03903 0 2.488 0.01745 0.0780 0.3732 n.s.
GCC-PHAT (sum) 0.4997 0.09259 0 3.031 0.03903 0.9861 0.8501 7.02 ×10−24
GCC-NONLIN (max) 0.0961 0.03880 0 1.897 0.01745 0.0719 0.2596 n.s.
GCC-NONLIN (sum) 0.4575 0.08899 0 2.756 0.03654 0.6880 0.8133 1.16 ×10−20
MVDR (max) (best case) 0.0833 0.03903 0 1.886 0.02424 0.0715 0.2269 N/A
MVDR (sum) 0.3263 0.05236 0 2.418 0.02468 0.2067 0.6420 1.10 ×10−14
DS (max) 0.0975 0.03803 0 1.876 0.01745 0.0719 0.2790 n.s.
DS (sum) 0.3275 0.05504 0 3.031 0.03491 0.2080 0.7017 2.99 ×10−12
DNM (max) 0.1323 0.03491 0 2.409 0.01745 0.0698 0.3893 n.s.
DNM (sum) 0.3515 0.05504 0 3.031 0.02468 0.1896 0.7498 2.16 ×10−12
  1. Results from the baseline method are first presented, followed by results using the T-F mask from [28] and [30] and the proposed method (SNR response scaling). Best-performing numericals for each category are highlighted in bold
\