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Table 4 Performance(TER%) comparison of the proposed lexicon learning-based pronunciation augmentation on conventional ASR systems

From: Pronunciation augmentation for Mandarin-English code-switching speech recognition

System ρ Lexicon(avg.#prons) Mandarin Code-switching Chilish
GMM-HMM Source Lexicon 17.5 23.7 27.0
  0.1 + LexLearn (3.65) 17.8 22.8 26.4
  0.4 + LexLearn (3.07) 17.6 22.1 26.2
  0.7 + LexLearn (2.41) 17.6 21.6 26.0
LF-MMI hybrid Source Lexicon 5.2 11.5 15.4
LF-MMI hybrid-1 0.7 + LexLearn (2.41) 5.7 10.9 15.2
LF-MMI hybrid-2 0.7 + LexLearn (2.41) 5.5 10.4 14.8
  1. “avg.#prons” means the average pronunciations per English word included in the training data. ρ is the pruning factor of acoustic soft counts in Eq.(2)