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Table 1 Arabic phoneme list used throughout our experiments.

From: Experiments on Automatic Recognition of Nonnative Arabic Speech

LDC phoneme Description IPA symbol
C voiced pharyngeal fricative ʕ
D velarized voiced alveolar stop đ
G voiced velar fricative
H voiceless pharyngeal fricative ʔ
Q voiceless glottal stop ʔ
S velarized voiceless alveolar fricative
T velarized voiceless alveolar stop ţ
TH velarized voiced interdental fricative ð
Z voiced interdental fricative ðʔ
ae low front vowel aa
ah low back vowel a
aw back upgliding diphthong a-w
ay front upgliding diphthong a-i
b bilabial voiced stop b
d voiced alveolar stop d
ey upper mid front vowel a-y
f voiceless labiodental fricative f
g voiced velar stop g
h voiceless glottal fricative h
ih high front lax vowel I
iy high front tense vowel ii
j voiced palato-alveolar fricative 3
k voiceless velar stop k
l voiced alveolar lateral l
m voiced bilabial nasal m
n voiced alveolar nasal n
q voiceless uvular stop q
r voiced alveolar flap r
s voiceless alveolar fricative s
sh voiceless palato-alveolar fricative
t voiceless alveolar stop t
th voiceless interdental fricative
uw high back rounded vowel o
w voiced bilabial approximant w
x voiceless velar fricative x
y voiced palatal approximant j
z voiced alveolar fricative z