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Table 4 Applied functionals in the ComParE feature set

From: Emotion in the singing voice—a deeperlook at acoustic features in the light ofautomatic classification

Functionals applied to LLD / Δ LLD
Quartiles 1–3, three inter-quartile ranges
One percentile (≈min), 99th percentile (≈max)
Percentile range 1–99
Position of min / max, range (max–min)
Arithmetic meana, root quadratic mean
Contour centroid, flatness
Standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis
Rel. duration LLD is above 25 / 50 / 75 / 90% range
Rel. duration LLD is above 25 / 50 / 75 / 90 % range
Rel. duration LLD is rising
Rel. duration LLD has positive curvature
Gain of linear prediction (LP), LP coefficients 1–5
Mean, max, min, std. dev. of segment lengthb
Functionals applied to LLD only
Mean value of peaks
Mean value of peaks—arithmetic mean
Mean / std.dev. of inter peak distances
Amplitude mean of peaks, of minima
Amplitude range of peaks
Mean / std.dev. of rising / falling slopes
Linear regression slope, offset, quadratic error
Quadratic regression a, b, offset, quadratic error
Percentage of non-zero framesc
  1. aArithmetic mean of LLD/positive Δ LLD
  2. bNot applied to voice related LLD except F 0
  3. cOnly applied to F 0