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Table 2 Examples of voice types, parameter variations, and parameter dependency rules, including public performance sequences (with corresponding sounds and videos)

From: Cantor Digitalis: chironomic parametric synthesis of singing

  P 0 M S B R T Additional file number and type
Parameter variations
Changing vocal tract size 44 1 [0,1] 0.15 0.06 0.5 16 (sound)
Changing tension 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 [0,1] 17 (sound)
Changing breathiness 44 1 0.29 [0,1] 0.06 0.5 18 (sound)
Changing roughness 44 1 0.29 0.15 [0,1] 0.5 19 (sound)
Changing pitch 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 13 (video)
Changing effort 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 14 (video)
Changing vowels 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 15 (video)
Voice types
Bass 32 1 0.21 0.2 0.06 0.5 20 (sound)
Tenor 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 21 (sound)
Alto 44 1 0.32 0.1 0.06 0.5 22 (sound)
Noisy Alto 44 1 0.33 0.3 0.06 0.5 23 (sound)
Soprano 56 2 0.35 0.1 0.06 0.5 24 (sound)
Noisy Soprano 56 2 0.41 0.3 0.06 0.5 25 (sound)
Bulgarian Soprano 56 1 0.53 0.1 0.06 0.66 26 (sound)
Baby 68 2 0.59 0.1 0.06 0. 27 (sound)
Gull 44   0.29 1 0.06   28 (sound)
Lion 8 1 0 0.7 0.2 0.5 29 (sound)
Didgeridoo 8 1 0 0.6 0 0. 30 (sound)
DesertBreeze 68 1 0 0.9 0.2 1. 31 (sound)
Whispering 56 1 0.35 0.6 0 0.8 32 (sound)
Woodbells 56 1 1 0 0.1 0.8 34 (sound)
Wind 56 1 0 1 0   33 (sound)
Live concert extracts
Raga1 32 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 35 (video)
Raga2 32 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 36 (video)
Cold song 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 37 (video)
The lion sleeps tonight m.c. 1 m.c. m.c 0.06 0.5 38 (video)
Bulgarian song m.c. 1 m.c. 0.1 0.06 0.66 39 (video)
Laugh m.c. m.c. m.c. m.c 0.06 0.5 40 (video)
Dependency rules
Long-term perturbations (OFF/ON) 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 1, 2 (sounds)
Phonation threshold (OFF/ON) 44 1 0.29 0.5 0.06 0.5 5, 6 (sounds)
Laryngeal mechanism (M=1,M=2) 44 1,2 0.32 0.15 0.06 0.5 3, 4 (sounds)
First formant tuning to E (OFF/ON) 44 1 0.29 0.15 0.06 0.5 7, 8 (sounds)
Formant frequency tuning to f 0 (OFF/ON) 56 2 0.35 0.15 0.06 0.5 9, 10 (sounds)
Formant amplitude attenuation (OFF/ON) 56 2 0.35 0.15 0.06 0.5 11, 12 (sounds)
  1. “m.c.” stands for “many configurations”