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Table 5 Results (TER%) of Transformer-based E2E CS ASR systems with different target acoustic modeling units

From: Pronunciation augmentation for Mandarin-English code-switching speech recognition

Modeling units Mandarin Code-switching Chilish
Baseline (character-letter) 5.2 11.6 15.9
Character-BPE 5.3 11.1 15.3
Character-PASM (CMU+MLex) 5.2 10.7 15.3
Character-PASM (E2M-po2m) 5.1 10.5 15.1
Character-PASM (Source Lexicon+Lexlearn (2.41)) 5.2 10.1 14.8