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Table 4 Computational complexity for different speaker normalization algorithms. (NWs: number of warpings, NFEs: number of feature extractions, NLCs: number of likelihood computations, NRPs: number of recognition passes).

From: Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

Algorithm NW NFE (Search+Recog.) NLC NRP
VTLN
BISN
BISN w/BTS
BISN w/MS-BTS (off-line)
BISN w/MS-BTS (on-the-fly)
Total gain [%]