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Table 8 Consonant-specific results: error rates and absolute improvements for each consonant (%).

From: Pitch- and Formant-Based Order Adaptation of the Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Speech Recognition

  Error rate Absolute error rate improvement with respect to MFCC by using FrFT-MFCC
  MFCC Pitch + MP Pitch + 2MP Pitch + 3MP Pitch + 5MP
b 6.25 −0.89 −1.79 0.89 0.89 −1.79 −0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 3.57 0.89 0.89
ch 8.93 0.89 2.68 0.89 3.57 4.46 0.00 1.79 5.36 0.00 0.89 3.57 1.79
d 16.07 −3.57 1.79 −7.14 −2.68 −3.57 −0.89 0.00 −1.79 −0.89 −3.57 −0.89 −1.79
dh 55.36 6.25 7.14 8.04 6.25 10.71 3.57 8.04 6.25 6.25 4.46 8.04 1.79
dj 16.07 0.89 0.00 −0.89 0.00 −1.79 −4.46 0.89 −0.89 1.79 −0.89 −0.89 0.89
f 25.00 0.89 7.14 0.89 3.57 8.04 9.82 8.93 2.68 −0.89 1.79 5.36 2.68
g 22.32 2.68 1.79 0.00 −1.79 −8.93 0.89 0.89 −4.46 1.79 0.00 1.79 −4.46
h 12.50 −0.89 −0.89 −0.89 0.89 −2.68 −2.68 0.00 −2.68 0.00 −1.79 −4.46 0.89
k 6.25 1.79 −0.89 −1.79 0.00 −1.79 −0.89 −1.79 0.89 1.79 −1.79 1.79 0.00
l 8.93 −2.68 0.00 −0.89 −0.89 −0.89 −1.79 −4.46 0.00 −1.79 −5.36 −1.79 −3.57
m 13.39 2.68 −1.79 −4.46 −1.79 −0.89 1.79 −1.79 −0.89 −0.89 −2.68 −1.79 0.00
n 12.50 0.00 2.68 5.36 0.89 2.68 −0.89 −0.89 −4.46 −3.57 0.89 −3.57 −9.82
ng 12.50 −0.89 0.89 −1.79 −0.89 −4.46 −2.68 −2.68 −2.68 −1.79 0.00 −2.68 −0.89
p 3.57 −0.89 −0.89 0.89 0.00 −1.79 −1.79 −2.68 −0.89 0.89 0.00 0.00 −0.89
r 9.82 −1.79 −0.89 −4.46 −4.46 −0.89 −1.79 0.00 −2.68 0.00 1.79 0.89 −0.89
s 14.29 −0.89 −0.89 0.89 −2.68 −3.57 0.89 2.68 2.68 4.46 1.79 −0.89 2.68
sh 8.04 1.79 5.36 2.68 2.68 3.57 4.46 4.46 3.57 4.46 1.79 4.46 3.57
t 10.71 2.68 3.57 4.46 1.79 1.79 1.79 0.00 1.79 2.68 1.79 7.14 4.46
th 30.36 0.89 −2.68 0.89 −2.68 2.68 0.00 1.79 0.00 −7.14 −0.89 0.00 0.00
v 33.04 6.25 0.00 2.68 0.00 2.68 2.68 −0.89 −4.46 2.68 0.00 0.89 3.57
w 4.46 1.79 2.68 0.00 0.89 1.79 0.89 1.79 1.79 1.79 0.00 −1.79 1.79
y 7.14 −0.89 −1.79 0.00 1.79 −0.89 −3.57 −0.89 −2.68 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.89
z 8.93 −3.57 −2.68 −3.57 −3.57 −3.57 −1.79 −3.57 −2.68 −2.68 0.00 −0.89 −1.79
zh 20.54 2.68 0.89 2.68 2.68 1.79 3.57 0.89 7.14 3.57 5.36 1.79 3.57